Climate Apocalypse Alarmist
- Sep 20, 2018
- SL Rez
The dolphins trying to have sex with humans? Like when a dolphin kept running its penis against Carl Sagan?So I was just looking up the people you mentioned vis-a-vis their work with dolphins, and with this guy I think I dug a little too deep and boy was I punished for that transgression.
What does this mean: "but they are tilted"? Lagrange points are co-planar with the secondary's (Earth's, the Sun being the primary) orbit. Or are these "Trojans" orbiting L4 at a substantial orbital diameter? Such an L4 orbit would suggest that they're only temporarily at L4 and will be gone soon. Just how big can an orbit around L4 be?We are not Alone - Earth has a couple of pet asteroids that inhabit the L4 region ahead of us in our orbit around the Sun. The second one was just confirmed to be of the "Trojan" type.
2010 TK7 is about 400 meters in diameter, and 2020 XL5 is about 1200 meters in diameter. Assuming they are similar to the two nearby asteroids we recently visited and extracted samples from, i.e. rubble piles with a density of 1.26, their combined mass would be around 1.18 Gigatons. Their orbits are exactly one year long, so they keep pace with Earth, but they are tilted. So visiting them would require doing an out-of-plane flyby of Earth after nearly escaping, then coming back for the flyby, and finally fully escaping and go in their direction.
The Lagrange "points" are mathematical solutions where gravitational forces balance out. L4 and L5 are stable points, meaning a stationary object will be drawn towards them. Imagine a very shallow bowl. If you release a marble it will role towards the center, then climb the other side. If you send it sideways it can roll around in circles and not reach the bottom. That's what is happening with the two Earth trojans, and the thousands of Jupiter Trojans. The first picture is a map of the Sun-Earth situation. But in reality it is three dimensional. Asteroids can bob up and down as well as move horizontally, and still stay in the area. So their orbits do in fact bob up and down, on an annual cycle, amounting to a 19 and 13 degree tilt relative to Earth's orbit.What does this mean: "but they are tilted"? Lagrange points are co-planar with the secondary's (Earth's, the Sun being the primary) orbit. Or are these "Trojans" orbiting L4 at a substantial orbital diameter? Such an L4 orbit would suggest that they're only temporarily at L4 and will be gone soon. Just how big can an orbit around L4 be?
For that matter, how big is the Webb Space Telescope's orbit around L2?
In our quest to find what makes humans unique, we often compare ourselves with our closest relatives: the great apes. But when it comes to understanding the quintessential human capacity for language, scientists are finding that the most tantalizing clues lie farther afield.
These parallels have motivated an explosion of research in recent decades, says ethologist Julia Hyland Bruno of Columbia University, who studies social aspects of song learning in zebra finches. “Lots of people have made analogies between language and birdsong,” she says.
Hyland Bruno studies zebra finches because they are more social than most migratory birds—they like to travel in small bands that occasionally gather into larger groups. “I’m interested in how it is that they learn their culturally transmitted vocalizations in these groups,” says Hyland Bruno, coauthor of a paper in the 2021 Annual Review of Linguistics comparing birdsong learning and culture with human language.
When we think of evolution, we often think of slow, gradual changes made over millions of years. However, new research suggests that the process could be happening quite quickly, driving major changes over the course of a single year in response to seasonal changes.
The paper describing that research was released last week and studies evolution in fruit flies over around 10 generations, with each generation of flies spanning less than a dozen days. While fruit flies are notoriously short-lived, and the distance between their generations is tiny, evolution could be happening quicker than previously anticipated even in longer-lived organisms.
The new DNA theories provide the "how" to punctuated equilibrium, which adds more validity to the entire paradigm.The assumption of slow, gradual evolution were pretty well upended when Eldredge and Gould published the first paper on punctuated equilibrium, which proposes that most species are stable for the majority of their range until events lead to the need for rapid change, at which point they adapt or become extinct in a short period of time. Published in 1972.